France, Provincial. Provence (comté). temp Alphonse II–Raimond Bérenger IV.
1185-1245. AR Denier (15mm, 0.95 g, 6h). Marsielles mint. Struck 1186-circa 1243. + RЄX ° ARA ° GO(NE), crowned head left / PO VI NC IA, long cross pattée, triple pellets at ends. Duplessy, Féodales
1611; Poey d'Avant 3930. Choice EF.
Mid-12th century Provence is a perfect example of the complex systems of marriage alliances that characterized European politics at the time. The Catalan rulers of Aragon desired lands in southern France, but these were held by the counts of Toulouse. As the ruler of Toulouse, Raymond IV, was excommunicated and thus out of favor of the church, Raimond-Bérenger III of Barcelona was able to obtain permission to marry Douce I, countess of Provence, and the two ruled jointly until Douce’s death. The territory would remain in Aragonese hands through the House of Barcelona until Raimond IV (V) died without male heirs in 1245. The title would then pass to his daughter, Beatrice, and her husband, Charles d’Anjou.