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Research Coins: Electronic Auction

 
3130536
313, Lot: 536. Estimate $100.
Sold for $190. This amount does not include the buyer’s fee.

CRUSADERS, Antioch. Bohémond III. 1163-1201. AR Denier (19mm, 0.97 g, 2h). Class C, var. c. Struck circa 1163-1188. + BOAИVHDVS, helmeted and mailed head left; crescent before, star behind / + AИTI:OCHIA, cross pattée; crescent in second quarter. Metcalf, Crusades 378; CCS 67d. EF.


Bohémond was born to Raymond of Poitiers, then Prince of Antioch, and Constance of Antioch in 1144. Raymond was killed leading a Crusader army against the Zengid forces of Nur al-Din at the battle of Inab in 1149. As Bohémond was still in his minority, his mother ruled as regent. When he came of age in 1163, however, Constance attempted to retain power, but she was exiled after her subjects revolted. Bohémond was a close ally of Raymond III of Tripoli, and he joined the latter in attempting to lift Nur al-Din's siege of Harim in 1164. The venture was a failure, and both were captured and imprisoned by the Muslims. The Byzantine emperor intervened and ransomed their release the following year. Over the following two decades, Bohémond became involved in internal disputes among the Byzantines, the Armenian Kingdom, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Regarding the latter, he and Raymond of Tripoli attempted to have Baldwin IV of Jerusalem name their candidate, Balian of Ibelin, as heir, but the king decided upon Gui of Lusignan. This event has terrible consequences for the Crusaders. Gui and his allies sparked a conflict with the Muslims under Saladin, whose forces eventually destroyed a the Kindgom's army, which also included many allied forces, at the battle of Hattin in 1187. With this defeat, the Jerusalem soon fell to the Muslims. Bohémond was not present for the battle, but his elder son, Raymond, was there, but escaped with Raymond of Tripoli. After Hattin, Saladin moved against Antioch, but Bohémond successfully defended the city, and the Muslims were forced to withdraw. Raymond of Tripoli died soon after Hattin, and had designated Bohémond's son Raymond as his successor, but Bohémond appointed his younger son, Bohémond IV, instead. In 1194, king Leo II of Armenia captured a castle of the outskirts of Antioch, and took Bohémond captive after luring him there under the pretense of conducting negotiations. Eventually, Henri II, nominal king of Jerusalem, intervened, and secured Bohémond's release upon the latter's giving up any claim to Armenian territory. Bohémond's later years were relatively uneventful, but his death in 1201 sparked a succession battle between his son, Bohémond IV, and grandson, Raymond-Roupen.